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About Orthodontics


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About Orthodontics


Scroll through to learn more or navigate this section from the menu on the side of the banner.

Scroll through to learn more! Navigate this section from the menu on the side of the banner or by selecting one the topics below.

Life with Braces


Now that you have braces, how do you take care of them?

Life with Braces


Now that you have braces, how do you take care of them?

Now that you have your braces, how do you take care of them? It’s important for you to know how to properly take care of your braces throughout your entire orthodontic treatment.

Visiting the dentist during orthodontic treatment

It is very important that you continue to visit your family dentist once every three to six months, even during your orthodontic treatment, for teeth cleanings and routine dental checkups. If extra dental care is needed, we will be happy to coordinate with your family dentist to make sure that you are receiving the best care possible.

Foods to avoid with braces:

  • Chewy foods — bagels, licorice
  • Crunchy foods — popcorn, chips, ice
  • Sticky foods — caramel candies, chewing gum
  • Hard foods — nuts, hard candies
  • Foods that require biting into — corn on the cob, apples, carrots

Types of Braces


What style of braces is best for your lifestyle?

Types of Braces


What style of braces is best for your lifestyle?

Metal Braces

Traditional Metal Braces

Traditional metal braces are the most common type of braces and are more comfortable today than ever before. Made of high-grade stainless steel, metal braces straighten your teeth using metal brackets and arch wires. With metal braces, you have the option of adding colored elastics (rubber ties) for a more unique and colorful smile.

Ceramic Braces

Ceramic braces are made of clear materials and are therefore less visible on your teeth than metal braces. For this reason, ceramic braces are used mainly on older teenagers and adult patients who have cosmetic concerns. While they are visually less prominent, they do require more attention to oral hygiene as ceramic braces are larger and are more brittle than their metal counterparts. For these reasons, ceramic braces tend to be used more on upper front teeth than on lower teeth.

Invisible (Clear) Orthodontic Appliances

Invisalign®

Invisalign® uses a series of invisible, removable, and comfortable aligners to straighten your teeth. And, no one can tell you are wearing Invisalign because it’s invisible! Not only are the aligners invisible, they are removable, so you can eat and drink what you want while in treatment, plus you can maintain your normal oral hygiene routine. The aligners are comfortable and have no metal to cause mouth abrasions during treatment. Please visit our Invisalign® page to learn more.

Orthodontics for Children


Does your child need a check up or are they ready for braces?  Learn more here!

Orthodontics for Children


Does your child need a check up or are they ready for braces?  Learn more here!

While there is no exact age for children to begin orthodontic treatment, the American Association of Orthodontists recommends visiting the orthodontist around age seven.

By this age, most children have a mix of baby teeth and adult teeth, making it easier for the orthodontist to diagnose and correct tooth and jaw problems sooner and without surgery.

Early treatment allows your orthodontist to:

  • Correct and guide the growth of your child’s jaw to help the permanent teeth come in straight
  • Regulate the width of the upper and lower arches
  • Create more space for crowded teeth
  • Avoid the need for permanent tooth extractions later in life
  • Correct thumb sucking and help improve minor speech problems

For parents, it’s not always easy to know if your child may need orthodontic treatment.

Here are a few things to look for that may mean your child needs to see an orthodontist:

  • Early or late loss of baby teeth
  • A hard time chewing or biting food
  • Mouth breathing
  • Finger or thumb sucking
  • Crowded, misplaced, or blocked teeth
  • Jaws that pop or make sounds when opening and closing
  • Teeth that come together abnormally, or do not come together at all
  • Jaws and teeth that are not proportionate to the rest of the face
  • Crowded front teeth around age seven or eight

Please contact our practice to schedule an appointment for an orthodontic evaluation. Early treatment now will give your child a healthy, beautiful smile for the future.

Orthodontic Treatment for Adults


Unhappy with your smile? Its not too late to change it! Learn about your options here!

Orthodontic Treatment for Adults


Unhappy with your smile? Its not too late to change it! Learn about your options here!

Orthodontic treatment is no longer just for teens; in fact, the American Association of Orthodontists sites that one in five orthodontic patients is over the age of 21! Many adults are choosing to receive treatment because they understand the importance of maintaining their health, and they want to feel better about their appearance. Adults everywhere are taking advantage of the opportunity to receive orthodontic care, and now you can too.

Common reasons why adults are considering orthodontic treatment:

  • A bad bite, or malocclusion, causing teeth to fit together incorrectly
  • If the teeth are crowded or spaced apart, possibly causing tooth decay or gum disease
  • Abnormal pain, or pressure, in the jaw that is caused by crooked teeth
  • To have a healthier mouth and a more confident smile

Treatment options for adults

For many adults, the thought of having metal braces is enough to discourage them from receiving treatment. Today’s orthodontic treatment options however, offer a variety of braces and appliances that are comfortable, aesthetic, and customized to meet your needs. Types of braces include:

  • Ceramic braces
  • Invisible braces
  • Traditional metal braces

The difference between adult orthodontics and orthodontics for children and teens:

There are actually not many differences between adult and child orthodontics; however, in children and teens the jawbones are still developing. For adults, these bones have stopped growing, which may mean the possibility of orthognathic surgery, in which the jawbones are surgically aligned. Other differences include:

  • Gum or bone loss (periodontal disease) — Adults are more likely than children to experience gum recession or even bone loss due to gingivitis or advanced periodontal disease. Patients with straighter teeth are less likely to get gum disease.
  • Worn or missing teeth — Over time teeth can become worn down and shift into different positions that can only be corrected with orthodontic care. Missing teeth can cause other teeth to shift and tilt creating a bad bite and the possibility of getting gum disease.
  • Incomplete orthodontic treatment as a teen — Many adults received some orthodontic treatment as a child or teen, but never completed their treatment. As an adult, they choose to complete their orthodontic treatment to achieve the healthy, beautiful smile they always wanted.

Our practice also recognizes that adults and children have different needs, and require a different level of attention and care. Adult treatment is in a separate area and in idividual, private treatment rooms. We will work with you to ensure that you receive the most appropriate treatments, and that your needs are met with understanding, respect, and full commitment from us.

Why should you consider orthodontic treatment?

  • Straight teeth are healthy teeth — Teeth that are properly aligned are easier to keep clean with flossing and brushing, and may help prevent other health problems.
  • A beautiful, straight smile builds confidence — Orthodontic treatment can help boost your self-confidence, giving you a better quality of life and the freedom to smile without holding back!
  • Mouths left untreated can get worse — Not receiving orthodontic treatment when it’s needed can create long-term health issues, and end up costing you more in the end.

To learn more about the benefits of adult orthodontics please contact our practice to schedule an appointment. We understand that you have a busy schedule, and we will work with you to make sure each office visit is as convenient as possible.

Common Treatments


Here are some of the most common forms of orthodontics treatment.

Common Treatments


Here are some of the most common forms of orthodontics treatment.

Crowding of the teeth

Patient started treatment at age 11 and wore braces for 26 months. He loves his new smile.

Openbite: Front teeth don’t touch

Patient sucked her thumb as a young child. She started treatment at age 13. She had braces and a special appliance – called a crib – to retrain the tongue, for 28 months. Now she can bite the lettuce out of a sandwich.

Deep overbite: Lower front teeth bite into palate

This adult patient, age 25, required braces and jaw surgery to correct his severe overbite, with treatment taking two years. His problem could have been corrected without surgery if he had been treated before he was a teenager.

Missing lateral incisors

This patient’s lateral incisors were congenitally missing. She had braces for 20 months to move the teeth into the correct position, then the missing teeth were replaced with bonded “Maryland” bridges.

Underbite: Lower front teeth in front of upper teeth

Patient’s underbite was causing her jaw joint discomfort and excessive wear patterns on her teeth. After about 30 months of treatment starting at age 32, she now finds smiling and chewing much easier.

Spacing of teeth

Patient was bothered by the spaces between his teeth. Braces closed the spaces and gave him an ideal bite in 24 months. Special glued-in retainers help keep the spaces closed.

Overjet: Protruding front teeth

At age 10, patient had a big overjet with the top teeth protruding beyond the bottom. She had two phases of treatment. The first helped her jaws to grow more harmoniously and the second aligned her teeth and bite. At age 13, she was proudly displaying her new smile.

Non-braces treatment

Sometimes braces are not needed to get noticeable improvements in tooth alignment. This patient was first seen at age seven for crowding of the lower permanent teeth. A procedure was performed to reduce the width of the adjacent baby teeth and the permanent incisors aligned on their own in nine months.

Phase I

Patient’s parents were concerned about both aesthetics and the health of the erupting permanent teeth when they brought him to the orthodontist at age eight. The lower front teeth were crowded and they touched the palate, and the upper front teeth were extremely displaced from their normal positions. After 12 months of Phase I treatment with an expander and partial braces, patient’s appearance and dental function was vastly improved.

Orthodontic FAQ


Got questions? Let us help you out.

Orthodontic FAQ


Got questions? Let us help you out.

What is orthodontics?

Orthodontics (also referred to as dentofacial orthopedics) is a specialized form of dentistry focusing on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial abnormalities.

What is an orthodontist?

An orthodontist is a dental specialist who has received two to three years of additional training and experience. Your orthodontist is able to straighten teeth, correct misaligned jaw structure, and improve the function of your smile.

What’s the best age to visit the orthodontist?

If you want to improve the look and feel of your smile, then any age can be a great age to see the orthodontist. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that children first visit an orthodontist around the age of seven; however, orthodontic treatment is not exclusive to children and teens, with about one in every five orthodontic patients being over the age of 21. Whether you’re considering treatment for yourself or for a child, any time is a good time to visit the orthodontist.

How can I take care of my teeth if I’m wearing braces or a retainer?

  • ALWAYS remember to brush your teeth after every meal and floss at least once a day.
    Make sure to use toothpaste that contains fluoride, and ask your orthodontist or family dentist if you need a fluoride rinse. This will help prevent cavities!
  • If you take out your retainer to eat, make sure you brush your teeth, floss, and remember to keep it safe in its container so that it does not get lost or broken.
  • Keep your retainer clean, too, by brushing it gently with a toothbrush and toothpaste. You may also soak it in denture cleaner as instructed by your orthodontist. Do not put your retainer in boiling water or in the dishwasher.
  • During your treatment, try to avoid foods with a lot of sugar, which increases the amount of bacteria that grows in your mouth, causing more plaque and possibly cavities.
  • Avoid sticky and chewy foods (caramel, chewing gum, gummy bears), hard foods (hard candy, nuts, ice cubes), or any foods that could possibly get stuck in your braces (corn on the cob, soft bagels, ribs, taffy, etc.).
  • Be sure to schedule your routine checkups with your family dentist. It is recommended that you continue to visit the dentist every six months.

What are braces?

Braces are used by your orthodontist to help you improve the look and feel of your smile. There are several different types of braces to choose from, including:

  • Clear braces
  • Invisible braces
  • Traditional metal braces

If I get braces, how long do I have to wear them?

The amount of time spent in braces will vary depending on the individual patient, because every smile responds differently to treatment. Treatment times can take anywhere between six and 30 months, but most standard treatments take about 22 months.

Do braces hurt?

Braces do not often hurt though you may feel a small amount of discomfort for a couple days as your teeth, gums, cheeks, and mouth get used to your new braces.

Do I need to brush my teeth more often if I have braces?

With braces, you should brush your teeth at least three times a day to keep your teeth, gums, and mouth healthy and clean. Brushing regularly will help remove any food that may be caught between the braces. You should also floss daily to get in between your braces where your brush isn’t able to reach. Your orthodontist can show you how to properly brush and floss once your braces are placed.

If I have braces, do I still need dental checkups every six months?

Yes! In fact, it’s even more important that patients receiving orthodontic treatment visit their dentist regularly. With braces, food may be caught in places that your toothbrush can’t reach. This causes bacteria to build up that can lead to cavities, gingivitis, and gum disease. Your dentist will work closely with your orthodontist to make sure that your teeth stay clean and healthy while wearing braces.

Will my braces interfere with my school activities like sports, playing an instrument, or singing?

Playing an instrument or a contact sport may require some adjustment when you first get your braces, but wearing braces will not stop you from participating in any of your school activities. If you play a contact sport, it is recommended that you wear a mouth guard to protect your braces or appliance.

How do I schedule my next appointment?

Simply call our practice! Our front desk staff will be happy to help schedule your next appointment at your convenience. If you are a new patient or have been referred to our practice, please let us know and we will provide you with all of the information you need.

Two-Phase Treatment


Learn all about Two-Phase Treatment and why that may be the best option for your child.

Two-Phase Treatment


Learn all about Two-Phase Treatment and why that may be the best option for your child.

What is the advantage of two-phase orthodontic treatment?

Two-phase orthodontic treatment is a specialized process that combines tooth straightening and physical, facial changes. The purpose of two-phase treatment is to maximize the opportunity to accomplish the ideal healthy, functional, and aesthetic result that will remain stable throughout your child’s life.

What if treatment is put off?

Putting off treatment can result in a need for more invasive treatment later in life that may not completely fix your child’s smile. Early treatment is most effective for achieving lasting results.

Phase One

The goal of Phase One treatment is to help the jaw develop in a way that will accommodate all of the permanent teeth and improve the way the upper and lower jaws fit together. Children often exhibit early signs of jaw problems as they grow and develop. An upper jaw that is growing too much or is too narrow can be recognized at an early age. If children over the age of six are found to have this jaw discrepancy, they are candidates for early orthodontic treatment. Also, if children around the age of eight have crowded front teeth, early treatment can prevent the need to extract permanent teeth later.

  • Planning now can save your child’s smile later

    Children benefit tremendously from early-phase treatment. Receiving early treatment may prevent the removal of permanent teeth later in life, or the need for surgical procedures to realign the jaws.

  • Making records to determine your child’s unique treatment

    Orthodontic records will be necessary to determine the type of appliances to be used, the duration of treatment time, and the frequency of visits. Records consist of models of the teeth, X-rays, and photographs. During your child’s initial consultation, the doctor will take records to determine if early treatment is necessary.

Resting Period

In this phase, the remaining permanent teeth are left alone as they erupt. Retaining devices may not be recommended if they would interfere with eruption. It is best to allow the existing permanent teeth some freedom of movement. A successful first phase will have created room for permanent teeth to find an eruption path. Otherwise, they may become impacted or severely displaced.

  • Monitoring the teeth’s progress
    At the end of the first phase of treatment, teeth are not in their final positions. This will be determined and accomplished in the second phase of treatment. Selective removal of certain primary (baby) teeth may be in the best interest of enhancing eruption during this resting phase. Therefore, periodic recall appointments for observation are necessary, usually on a six-month basis.

Phase Two

The goal of the second phase is to make sure each tooth has an exact location in the mouth where it is in harmony with the lips, cheeks, tongue, and other teeth. When this equilibrium is established, the teeth will function together properly. Phase Two usually involves full upper and lower braces.

At the beginning of the first phase, orthodontic records were made and a diagnosis and treatment plan was established. Certain types of appliances were used in the first phase to correct and realign the teeth and jaw. The second phase begins when all permanent teeth have erupted, and usually requires braces on all the teeth for an average of 24 months. Retainers are worn after this phase to ensure your child retains his or her beautiful smile.

Surgical Orthodontics


Learn all about how severe cases are treated using orthognathic surgery.

Surgical Orthodontics


Learn all about how severe cases are treated using orthognathic surgery.

Surgical orthodontics, also known as orthognathic surgery, is a type of orthodontic treatment used to correct severe cases that include bad bites, jaw bone abnormalities, and malocclusion. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is one of the nine recognized dental specialties, and it focuses on treating complex craniofacial cases that involve the mouth, jaw, face, and skull. If you need surgical orthodontics, your orthodontist will work with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ensure that you receive the best care possible.

When might surgical orthodontics be needed?

Surgical orthodontics may be used to treat adults with improper bites or other aesthetic concerns. Typically, jaw growth stops by age 16 in females and 18 in males. In order to receive orthognathic surgery, the jaw must be done growing. The need for surgical orthodontics occurs when the jaws do not line up correctly, and a proper bite cannot be achieved with orthodontic treatment alone. Orthognathic surgery will help properly align the jaw, and orthodontic braces will then be used to move the teeth into their proper position.

How do I know if I need orthognathic surgery?

Your orthodontist can tell you if orthognathic surgery is needed as part of your treatment. Depending on the severity of your case and the alignment of your jaw, you may or may not need surgery.

How does orthognathic surgery work?

An oral and maxillofacial surgeon will perform your orthognathic surgery, and the surgery will take place in a hospital. Orthognathic surgery can take several hours depending on each individual case. Once the surgery is complete, you will have about a two-week rest period. Since orthognathic surgery is a major treatment, we recommend that you schedule some time away from work and school during the healing process. After your jaw has healed, your orthodontist will once again “fine-tune” your bite. After surgery, you will have to wear braces, and most braces are removed within six to 12 months following surgery. After your braces are removed, you will wear a retainer to help maintain your new smile.

What are the risks associated with orthognathic surgery?

As with any major medical surgery, there may be certain risks of having orthognathic surgery. However, the process of orthognathic surgery is not new, and it has been performed for many years in practices and hospitals. If you’re concerned about an upcoming treatment with orthognathic surgery, please contact our practice and let us know. We are happy to answer any questions that you may have, and provide you with any additional information. Your comfort is important to us.

What are the rewards of having orthognathic surgery?

For many patients, the most important reward of having orthognathic surgery is achieving a beautiful, healthy smile that lasts a lifetime. Whether you need orthodontic treatment to correct a bad bite, malocclusion, or jaw abnormality, orthognathic surgery can help restore your confidence and leave you smiling with confidence for many years to come.

Invisalign®


A wonderful option for our adult patients that is a subtle and convenient alternative to metal braces.  

Invisalign®


A wonderful option for our adult patients that is a subtle and convenient alternative to metal braces.  

Invisalign®

We are a Certified Invisalign Provider

Consider Invisalign treatment to get the beautiful straight teeth you’ve always wanted — without braces. A consultation with our doctor can determine if Invisalign clear aligners are right for you.

What is it?

Invisalign treatment uses a series of virtually invisible, removable, and comfortable aligners that allow you to smile more during treatment as well as after. Invisalign clear aligners are made with 3D computer imaging technology and has been proven extremely effective. More than 70% of orthodontists in the US and Canada are certified to administer Invisalign treatment.

Why would I want it?

Not only are the aligners virtually invisible, they are removable, so you can eat and drink what you want while in treatment. Plus, brushing and flossing are no problem. They are also more comfortable than traditional braces, with no metal or wires, which also usually means you spend less time in your doctor’s office getting adjustments. Invisalign treatment also allows you to view your own virtual treatment plan when you start so you can see how your straight teeth will look when your treatment is complete.

How does it work?

You wear each set of aligners for about two weeks, removing them only to eat, drink, brush, and floss. As you replace each aligner with the next in the series, your teeth will move — little by little, week by week — until they have straightened to their final positions. You’ll visit us about once every six weeks or so to ensure that your treatment is progressing as planned. Total treatment time averages nine to 15 months and the average number of aligners worn during treatment is between 18 and 30, but both will vary from case to case.

For more information on Invisalign, you can visit the Invisalign website.

Invisalign Social Links

Invisalign Teen™


We offer Invisalign for our younger patients too! Learn all about our Invisalign Teen Program.

Invisalign Teen™


We offer Invisalign for our younger patients too! Learn all about our Invisalign Teen Program.

We are a Certified Invisalign Teen Provider

Bummed out about having braces?

Invisalign Teen aligners give you a whole new way to wear braces for a “clearly” amazing smile!

I have enough to worry about…now I need braces too?

The team has a game this Friday night, homecoming is in a month, and what about my yearbook pictures?! Don’t stress; during your Invisalign Teen treatment you won’t need to turn down any dates, wear a paper bag over your head, or hide out in your room for two years! Invisalign Teen aligners are a perfect fit for your lifestyle, because aligners are:

  • Clear
  • Removable
  • Super comfortable
  • Customized just for you

Pizza, Popcorn… No Problem!

You’ve probably heard from friends that with braces you won’t be able to eat anything. With Invisalign Teen aligners, you can eat whatever you want!

Unlike traditional metal braces, your Invisalign Teen aligners are removable, which means you can go ahead and eat all the things you love without worrying about breaking a bracket or losing a rubber band. Cheers!

It’s your life; keep it that way!

Invisalign aligners are really comfortable and very durable. They fit in with any of your extracurricular activities. So whether you’re swimming the 50-meter race, throwing the football out on the field, or playing the clarinet with the school band, you don’t have to worry about your braces getting in the way!

Answers to your questions from an actual Invisalign patient just like you.

See What Other Teens Are Saying:

Connect with other teens to share your Invisalign Teen experience and find out what other people have to say about their treatment.

Invisalign Social Links

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iTero™ Digital Impression System


Learn all about iTero™  and how we use it to assist in your treatment.

iTero™ Digital Impression System


Learn all about iTero™  and how we use it to assist in your treatment.

iTero™ Digital Impression System

Conventional vs Digital Impressions

No more goop, gagging, or discomfort. Using an iTero™ scanner, your orthodontist can take a highly accurate digital impression of your teeth and jaw. The new technology completely eliminates the tray and putty impressions, where the experience is comparable to stuffing a big wad of gum in your mouth. The old technique is incredibly unpleasant and frequently results in taking multiple rounds of impressions that can be rejected, broken, or misplaced. The iTero™ scanner ensures a more accurate impression from the start, resulting in improved treatment and a more comfortable patient experience. Digital impressions also give you the ability to see your teeth instantly in 3D, improving communication during the consultation and treatment process.

How Does it Work?

The iTero™ scanner digitally captures the structure of the teeth and gums using the latest optical technology. The scanner is a compact, hand-held wand. Once your orthodontist begins the scanning process, it can be stopped and started as many times as necessary.

Your mouth is scanned with a radiation-free laser, and in as little as two to three minutes, the laser renders a digitally perfect, 3D impression of your teeth and soft tissue structures. Through digital software, you’ll then be able to follow the progress of the scans, including a 3D model of your teeth on our computer screen. The iTero™ scanner can be used for any orthodontic treatment, including Invisalign®.

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Emergency Care


What to do when there's a problem with your braces or orthodontic device.

Emergency Care


What to do when there's a problem with your braces or orthodontic device.

True orthodontic emergencies are rare, but when they occur we are available to you. As a general rule, you should contact our office when you experience severe pain or have a painful appliance problem you can’t take care of yourself. We’ll be able to schedule an appointment to resolve the problem.

You might be surprised to learn that you may be able to solve many problems yourself temporarily until you can get to our office. If there is a loose piece that you can remove, put it in a plastic bag or envelope and bring it with you to your next appointment. If your braces are poking you, put soft wax on the piece that’s sticking out. If the wire has slid to one side, you can pull it back to the other side with needle-nosed pliers, replacing it in the tube on the back tooth.

After alleviating your discomfort, it is very important that you still call our office as soon as possible to schedule a time to repair the problem. Allowing your appliance to remain damaged for an extended period of time may result in disruptions to your treatment plan.


General Soreness

When you get your braces on, you may feel general soreness in your mouth, and teeth may be tender to biting pressures for three to five days. Stick to a soft diet until your teeth do not hurt to chew. Irritated gums and other sore spots can be relieved by rinsing your mouth with a warm salt-water rinse. Dissolve one teaspoonful of salt in eight ounces of warm water, and rinse your mouth vigorously. An alternative (better tasting) mouthwash is the Healthy Gums Rinse by The Natural Dentist. Placing Orajel on the affected area may also help relieve discomfort; Orajel can be found in a pharmacy or online. If the tenderness is severe, take Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or whatever you normally take for headache or similar pain. Aspirin, Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and Naproxen Sodium (Naprosyn, Anaprox, Aleve) actually slow the tooth movement, so it is not advisable to use them frequently while wearing braces.

The lips, cheeks, and tongue may become irritated for one to two weeks as they learn a new posture and become accustomed to the surface of the braces. You can put wax or Gishy Goo™ on the braces to lessen this. We’ll show you how!

Headgear

Sometimes discomfort is caused by not wearing the headgear as instructed by your orthodontist. Please refer to the instructions provided by your orthodontist. If the face bow (metal piece) is bent, please call our office for assistance. The headgear should hurt less the more it’s worn, so be sure you get in the prescribed number of hours.

Loose appliance

If your appliance is poking you, place wax on the offending part.

 

 

Loose bracket

If your bracket or band is still attached to the wire, you should leave it in place and put wax on it if needed for comfort. If the bracket or band can be removed easily, place it in an envelope and save it to bring to your next appointment.

Loose wire

Using a pair of tweezers or needle-nosed pliers, try to put your wire back into place. It is okay to use a piece of floss to tie the wire into place: tie the floss around the bracket in place of the missing colored o-ring. If you cannot put the wire into a comfortable position, and covering the end with wax doesn’t help, as a last resort use a small fingernail clipper to clip the wire behind the last tooth to which it is securely fastened. If the end of the wire is still sharp place wax on it.

Poking wire

Using a pencil eraser, push the poking wire down or place wax on it so that it is no longer poking.